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Brain:科学家鉴定出理解语言的脑区

2013-11-22 11:52| 发布者: admin| 查看: 1685| 评论: 0

我们通过阅读或者听其他人说话能够了解到各种信息,如人,物体,事件等。我们这种通过文字或语音理解内容的能力称之为"话语理解力"。。近期发表在Brain杂志上的文章称,科学家找到了话语理解能力的神经环路基础 ...

我们通过阅读或者听其他人说话能够了解到各种信息,如人,物体,事件等。我们这种通过文字或语音理解内容的能力称之为"话语理解力"。。近期发表在Brain杂志上的文章称,科学家找到了话语理解能力的神经环路基础。

未来研究该问题,科学家招募了145位参与越南战争的美国老兵,他们在战争中都遭受了头部损伤。该文章的通讯作者Barbey博士称,弹片会引起局部脑组织损伤,不像中风或其他神经疾病会引起多区域的脑损伤。该局部脑损伤有利于科学家研究话语理解能力的相关脑区。

Barbey博士称,局部脑损伤的神经心理病人对研究脑区作用有重要意义。

科学家分析了志愿者的CT扫描结果,并三维重建了大脑皮层结果。科学家分析了语言理解能力欠缺的志愿者的特定损伤的脑区,发现前额叶和顶叶环路对语言理解能力有重要作用。

Barbey博士称,相对于传统的参与语言过程的脑区,我们的发现表明话语理解能力需要更高级的神经环路,这将有助于整合新信息与记忆的信息。

Barbey博士称,话语理解能力是人类社会行为的标志。通过研究该能力的神经环路机制,我们进一步的了解了认知过程的神经机制。(生物谷Bioon.com)

英文摘要:

Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia

J. Fridriksson, D. Guo, P. Fillmore, A. Holland, C. Rorden.

Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca’s area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca’s and global aphasia, the two most common kinds of non-fluent aphasia. In summary, the current results suggest that the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus, a white matter tract that lies deep to posterior portions of Broca’s area and the sensory-motor cortex, is a robust predictor of impaired speech fluency in aphasic patients, even when motor speech, lexical processing, and executive functioning are included as co-factors. Simply put, damage to those regions results in non-fluent aphasic speech; when they are undamaged, fluent aphasias result.

http://www.psychologist.org.cn/

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